Causes of obesity and overweight and its prevention ~ Nursing Guru

Causes of obesity and overweight and its prevention

Causes of obesity and overweight and its prevention

Causes of obesity and overweight and prevention    

This paper is to advise one that it is so imperative to be taught what are the causes of obesity and overweight. It will answer how one can get the early indications of obesity and distinguish the side effects in themselves or others. There are numerous causes of obesity and it is critical to know these causes with the goal that one can keep the infection from influencing their life. Stoutness can influence ones social, mental, well-being and healthy life. Fat individuals have numerous disservices throughout everyday life. Some cannot get medical coverage in the event that they are excessively overweight, they make overall, less cash than individuals who are not stout.


Obesity is defined as the accumulation of abnormal or excess fat which can be harmful to health. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple weight index for height that is commonly used to classify obesity and overweight in adults. It is defined as the weight of a person in kilograms divided by the square meter of height (kg/m2).


Obesity and Overweight are defined by WHO as BMI of an adult is more than or equal to 25 and Obesity if BMI is more than or equal to 30.

Children under 5 years of age

For children, age needs to be considered when describing obesity and overweight. For children under 5: Overweight is Height for overweight weight WHO Child Growth standard is more than 2 standard deviations from the standard median. Obesity exceeds WHO child growth standards in terms of weight, height is more than 3 standard deviations.

Children aged between 5–19 years

The following is the definition of obesity and overweight for children aged 5–19. For overweight BMI, age WHO growth is more than the 1 standard deviation from the reference median. WHO Growth Reference Median Obesity is greater than 2 standard deviation 

WHO global estimates Obesity and Overweight

More than 650 million of adults had obesity and more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 and over were overweight. Adults 39% male and 40% female aged 18 were overweight. Overall, approximately 11% of men and 15% of women of the world's adult population were obese in 2016. 197 Between 1975 and 2016, the rate of obesity worldwide tripled. An estimation of 38.2 million under five years of age had overweight or obesity in 2019. 340 million children and adolescents over the age of 5-19 were overweight or obese. The aged of 5-19 obese and overweight children and adolescents has increased dramatically from just 04% in 1975 to 18% of girls and 19% of boys were overweight. In 1975, only 5% of children and adolescents were obese, while in 2016, 124 million more children and adolescents (6% girls and 8% boys) were obese.

Causes of obesity and overweight

Causes of obesity and overweight is the energy imbalance between the heat consumed and the calories expended. Energy Increases energy-dense foods that are high in fat and sugar. The increasing shackles of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, and increasing physical instability due to increasing urbanization. Changes in dietary and physical activity patterns are often the result of environmental and social changes associated with growth and lack of supportive policies in areas such as health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education.

Complications of obesity and overweight

Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many chronic diseases, including heart disease which is the leading cause of death worldwide. Being overweight can also lead to diabetes and related conditions, including blindness, amputation and the need for dialysis. Excessive weight lifting can lead to muscle disorders, including muscular dystrophy. Obesity is also associated with some cancers, including endometrial, breast, dumbbell, prostate, liver, gallbladder, kidney and colon. The risk of these rare diseases also increases when a person is just a little overweight and becomes more serious as soon as their body mass index (BMI) rises. Obesity in childhood is associated with a number of health complications and an increased risk of premature onset of related diseases. Studies show that without intervention, obese children and adolescents will continue to be obese.

Causes of obesity and overweight and its prevention

How Obesity and Overweight be decreased?

Obesity and overweight, as well as the rare diseases associated with them, are largely prevented. Choosing healthy foods and regular physical activity makes the choice easier (which is the most accessible, available and affordable), and therefore helps people and environments and communities to help prevent obesity and overweight are fundamental in shaping.

Limit or control the energy intake from total fats and sugars. Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as beans, whole grains and nuts. Perform regular physical activity (60 minutes a day for children and 150 minutes a week for adults). Reduce the amount of fat, sugar and salt in processed foods. An individual should ensure that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable. Sugar banning the marketing of foods high in sugar, salt and fat, especially those intended for children and adolescents. Ensure the availability of healthy selected food choices and regular physical activity.

A healthy diet

For adults

Fruits, vegetables, beans (such as lentils and beans), nuts and whole grains (such as unprocessed corn, millet, oats, wheat and brown rice). Potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots, excluding at least 400 g (ie five parts) of fruits and vegetables per day.
Sugar-free is less than 10% of total energy intake, which consumes 2000 calories per day for a healthy body weight person, but ideally less. or honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juices contain naturally occurring sugars in food or beverages are effective to consume.
Less than 1% of total energy is from fat. Non-saturated fats (found in fish, avocados and nuts, and sunflower, soybean, canola and olive oils) are better than saturated fats (fatty meats, butter, dates and coconut oils), Cream, cheese, ghee and pork fat) and trans fats of all kinds, including both industrially prepared trans fats (found in baked and fried foods, and pre-packaged snacks and meals) Drinks, such as frozen pizza, pies, cookies, biscuits, wafers, and cooking oils and spreads (infant trans fats) (animals found in meat and dairy foods, such as cows, sheep, goats and camels) are recommended.
The amount of saturated fat should be less than 10% of the low energy content and the Trans fat should be reduced to less than 1% of the total energy content. In particular, industrially prepared trans fat is not part of the diet and should be avoided.  Less than 5g of salt per day (equivalent to one teaspoon). Salt should be iodized.

For infants and young children

In the first 2 years of a child's life, maximum nutrition promotes healthy development and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of being overweight or obese later in life and developing Non-communicable diseases. Advice on a healthy diet for newborns and children is the same as for adults, but the following elements are also important.
During the first 6 months of life, babies should be exclusively breastfed. Babies 2 years of age or older should be breastfed regularly. From 6 months of age, breast milk should be supplemented with a number of suitable, safe and nutritious foods. Excess salt and sugar food should not be included.

Fruit and vegetables

Eating  400g, of fruit and vegetables per day can reduce the risk of Non-communicable disease and help daily intake of dietary fibre. 

Fruit and vegetable intake can be improved by: 

Always include vegetables in your meals. Use and eat fresh fruit and raw vegetables in snacks. Eat seasonal fresh fruit and vegetables. Eat various kinds of fruit and vegetables.


Reducing the amount of total fat intake to less than 30% of total energy intake helps to prevent unhealthy weight gain among adults. Also, the risk of developing Non-communicable disease is lowered by: Reduce saturated fats to less than 10% of total energy intake. Reduce trans-fats by less than 1% of total energy intake. Replace both saturated fats and trans-fats with unsaturated fats in particular, with polyunsaturated fats.

Fat intake, especially saturated fat and industry food produced trans-fat can be reduced by: Steamed or boiling instead of frying food. Replace butter and ghee with oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, like soybean, corn canola (rapeseed), and sunflower oils. Eat low-fat dairy foods and lean meats, or reduce visible fat from meat. Limit the consumption of pre-packaged snacks and baked, fried foods, (Such as doughnuts, cakes, pies, cookies, biscuits and wafers) that contain industrially-produced trans-fats.

Salt, sodium and potassium

Most people consume too much sodium through salt (an average of 9 to 12 g of salt per day) and too little potassium (less than 3.5 g). The result of insufficient potassium intake and High sodium intake leads to high blood pressure, which in turn increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. Reducing your salt intake to the recommended level of less than 5 g per day could prevent 1.7 million deaths each year.

People are often unaware of how much salt they are consuming. In many countries, most of the salt comes from processed foods or from foods that are frequently consumed in large quantities (for example, bread). Salt is also added to food during cooking (eg broth, bouillon cubes, soy sauce, and fish sauce) or at the point of consumption (eg table salt).

Salt intake can be reduced by:

Limit the amount of salt and high-sodium when cooking and preparing foods. Limit the salt or high-sodium sauces on the table. Limit the intake of more salty snacks. Choose products that are in low sodium content. Check the nutrition labels on food products to see how much sodium is in a product before purchasing or consuming it. 


In both children and adults, the intake of free sugar must be reduced to atleast less than 10% of total energy intake.  A reduction of less than 5% of total energy intake would provide additional health benefits. Consumption of free sugars can increase the risk of (tooth decay) dental caries. Excess calories from foods and drinks high can contribute to unhealthy weight gain, which can lead to obesity and overweight. Recent studies also indicate that free sugars increase blood pressure and serum lipids, and suggests that a reduction in free sugars intake reduces risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

Causes of obesity and overweight and its prevention

The amount of sugar can be reduced by:

Limit consumption of foods and beverages containing high amounts of sugar, such as sugary snacks, candies and sugary soft drinks (ie all beverages containing free sugar - including carbonated or non-carbonated soft drinks, fruit or vegetable juices) Includes and drinks, the concentration of liquids and powders, flavoured water, energy and sports drinks, ready to drink tea, coffee and flavoured milk drinks). Eat fresh fruits and vegetables as a snack instead of salted snacks.

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