6 mosquito control measures in community integrated vector management ~ Nursing Guru

6 mosquito control measures in community integrated vector management

6 mosquito control measures in community integrated vector management

For mosquito control measures according to WHO, mosquitoes are probably the deadliest creature on the planet. Their capacity to carry and spread the disease to people causes a huge number of deaths consistently. In 2015 intestinal malaria alone caused 438000 deaths. WHO's World Malaria Report 2019 says that there were no worldwide additions in decreasing new diseases over the period 2014-2018. Also, almost the same number of individuals died from malaria in 2018 as the prior year. As indicated by Ministry of health and family welfare India reported in 2019 December 136422 cases and 132 deaths were accounted for India.

Why World Mosquito Day is celebrated?

World Mosquito Day is celebrated on August 20th consistently. World Mosquito Day 2020 commemorates the discovery of a link between mosquitoes and the deadly disease malaria. In memory of the British physician Sir Ronald Ross who discovered in 1897 that 'female mosquitoes spread malaria among humans'. The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine have been celebrating World Mosquito Day every year since the 1930s.

6 mosquito control measures in community integrated vector management

World Mosquito Day is celebrated to raise awareness about the causes of malaria and its symptoms so that people can be careful by doing what is necessary to stop mosquito breeding, controlling and preventing malaria worldwide.

What are mosquitoes?

Mosquitoes are probably the deadliest creature on the planet. Mosquito name means "small fly" from the Spanish word. Like bees, mosquitoes also eat plant honey. Their ability to spread and carry diseases to humans causes millions of deaths each year. There are various mosquitoes that carry a wide variety of diseases. Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes act as vectors (organisms that transmit infectious diseases from humans or from animals to humans).

Diseases caused by mosquitoes

According to the National Health Portal, India's, there are several types of mosquitoes that carry diseases:

Aedes: Chikungunya, Dengue Fever, Lymphatic Filariasis, Rift Valley Fever, Yellow Fever, Zika

Anopheles: Malaria, Lymphatic filariasis

Culex: Japanese encephalitis, Lymphatic filariasis, West Nile fever

Theme of world mosquito day 

The theme of the world mosquito day for 2020 is Malaria. The World Health Organization joins the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) relationship in pushing "Zero Malaria Start With Me" to end malaria. It is a grassroots campaign aimed at keeping malaria high on the political agenda, mobilizing additional resources and promoting communities to take up the right to malaria prevention and care.

Malaria No More (MNM) India

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are major concern worldwide. India has made tremendous strides in reducing the malaria burden in recent years, launching the India Against Mosquito campaign to set the tone for a comprehensive awareness drive with relevant stakeholders for the improvement of mosquito-borne diseases.

Malaria No More (MNM) India is a non-profit organization working in support of India's 2030 Malaria Eradication Goal. For the past two years MNM India has been operating nationally and in Odisha, the highest malaria local state in India. At the national level MNM India supported the development of the National Social and Behavior Change Communication Strategy and operated through the Strategic Support Unit in Odisha to provide techno managerial support to the malaria program in the state.

Facts about mosquito born diseases

  1. Female Anopheles culicifacies is the main vector of malaria and usually feeds on cattle as well as humans.
  2. Anopheles (vector of malaria) breeding in rainwater pools and pumpkins, ditches, river bed pools, irrigation canals, seepages, rice fields, wells, pond margins.
  3. The Anopheles mosquito mostly bites between dusk and dawn.
  4. Female Ades aegypti is transmits dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever disease to humans
  5. Aedes aegypti bites mostly during the day, and the maximum biting periods are early in the morning and before dusk.
  6. Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in small amounts of water in any kind of man-made containers or storage containers.
  7. The eggs of Aedes aegypti can live without water for more than a year.
  8. Aedes aegypti usually flies an average of 400 meters, but it can be accidentally transported by humans from one place to another.
  9. Only female mosquitoes need blood meal and bite animals, while male mosquitoes do not bite but eat flower nectar or other sugar sources.
  10. However, this latest fact is linked to the first positive mosquito news, the recent Covid-19 not being able to spread by them.

6 mosquito control measures in community integrated vector management

Prevention measures for mosquito-borne diseases Integrated Vector Management (IVM) includes:

I. Vector Surveillance

  1. Larvae surveys and adult surveys are important for early detection of mosquito populations so that proper control measures can be initiated at an early stage.

II. Vector management

  1. Includes methods of mosquito breeding and adult mosquito eradication.

III. Environmental Management

  1. Covering all water containers in the house to prevent fresh egg laying by vector.
  2. Empty and dry water tanks, containers, coolers, bird baths, pet water bowls, plant pots, drip trays once a week.
  3. Removing discarded items that collect rainwater from open places.
  4. Check regularly for clogged gutters and flat roofs as they may have low drainage.

IV. Biological control

  1. Introducing larval virus fish (Gambusia / Guppy) in ornamental water tanks / garden.
  2. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt H-14) is a biological larvicide in stagnant water, using bacteria. It poses no risk to humans, non-targeted animal species or the environment when used in accordance with instructions.

V. Chemical control

  1. Chemical larvicides (such as temphos) are used in permanent large water containers where water must be conserved or stored due to water scarcity or irregular and unreliable water supply.
  2. Pyrethrum spray or Malathion fogging or ultra-low volume (ULV) sprays are recommended for adult mosquito control in areas where adult-Dengue, Chikungunya, and / or Zika virus infection cases have been identified. Indoor residual spraying with pesticides is used to control Malaria.

VI. Personal care or prevention measures

  1. Using insect repellent
  2. Wearing clothes that cover the body as much as possible (preferably light in color)
  3. Using physical barriers such as screening windows and doors.
  4. Sleeping under mosquito nets even during the day time
  5. Patients infected with Dengue, Chikungunya or Zika virus, their family members and the community must take personal preventive measures.

National vector borne disease control program (NVBDCP)

It is one of the technical divisions of the Directorate General of Health Services under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and is the nodal agency for the prevention and control of all vector borne diseases in India. To read more about NVBDCP click here 



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