First aid module for BSc. Nursing students in semester-I ~ Nursing Guru

First aid module for BSc. Nursing students in semester-I

First aid module for BSc. Nursing students in semester-I

First-aid module training is a low-cost, high-impact method of lowering morbidity and mortality. With the help of the Belgian Red Cross Evidence Practice Center, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, and a multidisciplinary expert panel, the Indian Red Cross Society developed evidence-based Indian first aid guidelines in 2014.

First aid module for B.Sc. Nursing students in1st semester

  1. About first-aid
  2. First aid and law
  3. Managing an emergency
  4. Resuscitation (Basic CPR)
  5. Recoverable position
  6. The initial examination from head to toe
  7. Hygiene and handwashing


Basic first aid

Before the arrival of an ambulance, a qualified paramedical or medical person, or before arriving at a facility that can provide professional medical care, first aid is the first assistance or treatment given to a casualty or a sick person for any injury or unexpected illness.

The objectives of first aid

The objectives of first aid are to (a) save lives, (b) prevent the deterioration of one's medical condition, (c) promote recovery, and (d) assist in safe transportation to the nearest healthcare facility.

The first aider

Any person who has earned a certificate from an authorised training authority demonstrating that he or she is qualified to administer first aid is referred to as a first aider.


The following subset of the guidelines is included:

A bystander or Good Samaritan ("someone who assists an injured individual in an emergency") such as a witness to an accident, may transport an injured person to the nearest hospital and should be permitted to depart right away. The eyewitness is required to disclose his or her address.

There are no questions to be asked. Any civil or criminal responsibility for the onlooker or Good Samaritan must be waived. A witness or Good Samaritan who calls the police or emergency services to report an injured person on the road cannot be forced to reveal his name or personal information over the phone or in person.

The sharing of the Good Samaritan's contact information will be optional. A doctor's or nurse’s failure to respond in an emergency involving a road accident (when he is required to offer care) is considered Professional Misconduct.


Although emergency situations differ widely, there are four fundamental measures that must always be followed:

STEP 1: Make the location as secure as possible

First and first, your own safety should always be prioritized. As a first responder, you should:  Try to figure out what's going on. Look for any potential dangers, such as traffic, fire, or power cables; if you are placing yourself in danger, never approach an accident scene. Do everything you can to protect the injured person(s) and other individuals on the scene; be aware that the injured person's property is at risk. Theft is a possibility. So keep your safety in mind, and if an accident scene is unsafe and you can't aid without placing yourself at risk, call the police.

When coming into contact with the injured or sick person's blood or body fluids, it's also necessary to wash your hands and wear gloves or other protective gear.

As a first responder, you should always respect traffic laws; ask other persons to notify traffic about the accident; and, if possible, install a warning sign at a good distance from the accident, at least 30 meters on either side, to warn traffic. After the accident, remember to remove the warning signs; seek assistance from the police or emergency services; do not allow anyone to smoke near the accident site; turn off the engines of all cars involved in the accident, and try to apply the handbrake to keep vehicles involved in the accident from moving. You can also prevent rolling by placing something against the tires.

If there has been a head, neck, back, leg, or arm injury, any movement may aggravate the ailment. Only transport injured persons if: the injured person is at greater risk if he is left there, the situation cannot be made safe, medical help will not arrive soon, and you can do so safely.

STEP 2: Assess the injured person's health

You can assess the sick or injured person's condition if it is safe. Always make sure he's awake and breathing normally. Situations involving a loss of consciousness or difficulty breathing are frequently fatal. Inside the body, bleeding can occur and be life-threatening, even if there is no visible blood loss. This booklet explains resuscitation techniques (CPR), the recovery position, and other topics.

STEP 3: Seek assistance

After assessing the sick or injured person's condition, you can determine whether immediate assistance is required. If assistance is required, have a bystander contact for assistance. Request that he returns and confirm that assistance is being provided. If you call for assistance, have the following information ready: the location where assistance is needed (address, street, specific reference points, location; if in a building: floor, room); the telephone or mobile number you are calling from; the nature of the problem; what happened (car accident, fall, sudden illness, explosion, etc.); how many injured; nature of the injuries (if you know); what type of assistance is required: ambulance, paramedic, etc.

STEP 4. Provide first-aid care

When giving first aid, attempt to keep an ill or injured person warm and safe from the elements. If a person is severely hurt, nauseated, sleepy, or falls unconscious, do not offer him or her anything to eat or drink. Be mindful that being in an emergency scenario can be quite stressful for the injured or ill individual. Follow these easy guidelines to help him get through the ordeal: Identify yourself to the sick or injured individual, explain how you will assist him, and reassure him. This will aid in his relaxation; listen to the individual and express care and friendliness; make him as comfortable as possible.


CPR is a procedure that combines cardiac chest compression with artificial circulation to deliver oxygen and circulation to a person who is unconscious until medical assistance arrives. When conducted with the heart pumping off, this is a life-saving first aid operation that boosts a person's chances of survival. If a person stops breathing in any of the following scenarios, CPR may be required:

Road accident, Heart attack or stroke, Suffocation, Drowning \Poisoning, Suffocation \ Smoke inhalation, Overdosing on drugs or alcohol, Suspected SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)

To hold life, we need our hearts to pump oxygenated blood to our vital organs. To achieve this we want to be respiration and our hearts need to be pumping. Should both of these functions stop, our brain and different essential organs will begin to deteriorate (brain cells normally die within 3-4 minutes due to lack of oxygen) which will in the end lead to death.

‘Ventricular fibrillation is the most frequent result of cardiac arrest, brought on by way of a coronary heart attack. When this happens, the quality chance of survival for the patient is to have their heart ‘restarted’ with a defibrillator. These are carried on all ambulances, and can also be found in some public places (shopping centres, etc.).

These days’ defibrillators are very sophisticated and will talk you through the process, but you ought to be educated in the use of them earlier than trying to use one. However, even if you are skilled to use one, you must call an ambulance first, as this will give the casualty the nice danger of survival.

Even so, we want to keep the heart and Genius oxygenated as nice we can while assistance is on the way; this is when we begin Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).

How can response and consciousness be detected?

When a person is abruptly unable to respond to stimuli such as sound or pain and looks to be asleep, they are said to be unconscious. For a few seconds (as with fainting) or for prolonged periods of time, a person may be unconscious. Loud noises and shaking have little effect on those who have fallen asleep. They could possibly cease breathing or have a weak pulse. This necessitates rapid assistance. It is preferable if the victim receives emergency first help as soon as possible.

The AVPU scale (an acronym for "alert, voice, pain, unresponsiveness") is a technique for measuring and recording a patient's responsiveness, which indicates their state of awareness. It is based on the victim's eye-opening, vocal, and motor (motor) movements.

There are just four possible outcomes on the AVPU scale:

A-stands for alert

The individual is completely awake (although not necessarily oriented). The subject will open their eyes voluntarily, respond to voice (although confusedly), and exhibit bodily motor function.

V-stands for voices

Listening to and responding to other people's voices. When you speak to this individual, he responds in some way. It may be anything as simple as his opening his eyes, replying to your queries, or making a move. When encouraged by the rescuer's voice, these replies might be as little as a grunt, groan, or tiny movement of a limb.

P stands for pain

Perceiving and responding to pain. On the administration of pain stimuli, such as a central pain stimulus like a rub on his breastbone or a peripheral pain stimulus like pinching his fingers, the patient responds in any way. Patients with some level of consciousness (a completely awake patient would not require any pain stimuli) can respond by speaking, moving their eyes, or moving a bodily part (including abnormal posturing).

U stands for Unresponsiveness

Unresponsiveness (sometimes known as 'unconsciousness') is a kind of unresponsiveness. If the patient does not respond to speech or pain with an eye, vocal, or motor reaction, this result is noted.

How breathing can be Assessed

The airway may additionally be insufficient or obstructed, which can make respiratory difficult or not possible. The reason for airway obstruction may additionally be the following:

If there is a lack of throat muscle control, the tongue may also soak up and block the element of air. If reflexes are impaired, saliva might build at the back of the throat, impeding flight direction. Upchuck, blood, synthetic enamel, and other foreign things in the throat might potentially obstruct airflow.

To observe the breathing do the following:

Turn the patient around on his back if the patient is unconscious or not paying attention. Sit on your knee near the patient

The index and middle fingers of one hand should be used to lift the chin forward, while the palm of the other hand should be used to press the forehead backwards. The tongue will be lifted forward and the airways will be cleared by doing this manoeuvre. (See figure 2)

First aid module for B.Sc. Nursing students in 1st semester

Pay attention to, feel, and describe the patient breathing. Check to verify if the patient is breathing after opening his or her airway. While staring down the victim's chest, position your cheek in front of his mouth (approximately 3-5 cm away) (towards his feet).

If you want, you can also place your palm in the centre of the patient's chest. By this, you can check if the patient is breathing properly using a variety of techniques: (See figure 3 above)

Keep a lookout for chest and abdominal movements. pay attention to breathing noises feel the air passing via the nose or mouth. If the patient's chest continues is not raised up, assume that the airway is not completely open.

The patient may begin breathing on his or her own once the airway has been cleared. Alternatively, clear the airway by eliminating any obvious obstructions: (a) Using a clean cloth/gloves, hook your first two fingers. (b) Sweep the interior of your mouth/throat. (c) Double-check your breathing.

How Pulse can be assessed?

It's not always simple to detect the pulse. During an emergency, feeling the pulse on the wrist is typically unreliable. Place your fingertips lightly on the voice box and slide them down into the depression between the voice box and the surrounding muscle to feel the pulse. Don't waste time looking for and feeling the pulse. Current layperson resuscitation recommendations state that CPR should be begun when the individual is not breathing or not breathing properly and that there is no need to check the pulse.

Resuscitation of an Individual Who is Not Breathing or is Not Breathing in a Normal Manner

If the patient is not breathing properly or not berating first, you should call for help and ask for an ambulance. Keep the palm of your one hand on the patient's chest at the centre. With the other hand on top, intertwine your fingers.

Kneel next to the patient's chest, on whichever side seems more comfortable.

Firmly press down on the patient's breastbone (current standards recommend a depth of 6cm), then relax the pressure while maintaining touch with the casualty. This is referred to as chest compression. Avoid pressing on the ribs, upper abdomen, or the end of the casualty's breastbone when administering pressure. Each compression should have the same time each time. Compress the chest at a pace of 100-120 compressions per minute for 30 seconds.

In an ideal circumstance, the victim would be lying flat on a firm surface, allowing CPR to be administered.

This isn't for all time the case, and you might need to do CPR on a patient who is lying down. If you find yourself in this circumstance, attempt to get the victim to the floor as soon as possible without injuring yourself or the victim. If this isn't feasible, remove any pillows or cushions and perform CPR with the victim lying flat. It's still preferable to doing nothing.

Combination of chest contractions with breathing:

After compressing the chest, bend the patient's head back to make sure the airway is clear. Pinch the person's nose off, this will ensure that the breath you give them does not escape.

You should take a deep breath and place your mouth on the patient’s mouth and make it a seal. Blow constantly into the mouth of the deceased, making sure their head is tilted backwards and their windpipe is open. Place your eyes on the injured person's chest to make sure it grows (this should take about a second) this is known as rescue breathing.

Remove your mouth and provide enough space for you to take a deep inhale. Keep the injured person's airways open and watch for air to fall from the chest. Keep your mouth shut and breathe a sigh of relief. You have to do this twice.

Immediately place your hand on the patient's chest and give 30 more chest compressions, followed by 2 more breaths. Continue switching between 30 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths. 

Try the following if your respiratory effects aren't working:

Add extra 30 compressions to the chest. Remove any visible obstructions in the patient's mouth. To ensure that the patient's airways are clean, tilt the head back and lift the chin. If the patient's airways are not clean, the breath you take will not fill the lungs. Continue CPR until emergency personnel come to take care of the situation. You're too exhausted to go on.

Resuscitation of infants and children:

Understandably, some individuals are hesitant to do CPR for fear of injuring the kid or newborn. Failure to deliver CPR to a kid in this situation, on the other hand, is likely to result in serious penalties. CPR performed on a kid is the same as CPR performed on an adult. Only a few small changes have been made to the procedure such as before beginning CPR, giving the infant 5 breathes and then reducing 30 chest compressions to 2 respirations. If you're alone, perform CPR for approximately a minute before seeking medical assistance.


The recovery position is a lateral prone posture in which a patient who is asleep but breathing regularly might be put during first aid treatment. Muscles are relaxed in an unconscious individual. The tongue obstructs the airway as a result of this. By gently tilting the head back and elevating the chin, this risk may be avoided. For unconscious victims who are breathing, the recovery posture should be adopted.

The arms and legs of the victim offer the essential support to keep the body in a secure and comfortable position. Concerns about possible spinal damage take a back seat to the need to clear the breathing route. An unconscious individual must be put onto his back to unclog the breathing path and check to breathe unless it is evident that the person is breathing regularly.


Ask the patient about the accident. If the casualty is aware, he or she will provide the history. Someone who saw the accident will assist him if he is unconscious. The surroundings, such as an abandoned car or a damaged area around the location and its state, will add to the information. The first aider is informed of the casualty's symptoms.

Some symptoms are given below as examples which may occur during casualty may report: Pain, cold or heat, thirst, nausea, weakness, dizziness, fainting, any loss of normal mobility, any loss of sensation, momentary loss of consciousness, loss of memory, having experienced the sensation of fracturing a bone, and so on


You should wet your hands and wash them properly. Cover all areas of your hands in soap. This is best done with liquid soap. You may also use ash that has cooled down to wash your hands.  Rub your hands together vigorously for 40-60 seconds, then thoroughly wash them.

Make sure the soap gets all the way down to your fingertips. Don't forget your thumbs, the area between your fingers, and the tips of your fingers. Hands must be thoroughly rinsed. Make sure you have enough water. Hands must be completely dry.

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20 important Basic Life Support questions and answers 2021

First Aid for Teachers and Students (FAST)

First Aid Mobile Software, an app developed by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in collaboration with the Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS), has been launched on Google Play Store and the Apple Store. First Aid Mobile App has been uploaded both in Google Play Store and Apple Store. The link to access the FAST App on Google Play Store (Android) is FAST - First Aid Mobile App aid in the delivery of first aid training to teachers and students, ensuring that any emergency scenario that arises on school grounds is handled quickly until professional medical assistance arrives.

Can nurses provide first aid?

The nurse appears to have a professional and ethical obligation to offer first aid, as well as a legal one in some instances.

Do nurses need first aid training?

Nurses consider as personnel who have the necessary training and experience if they can exhibit existing first-aid knowledge and abilities. Basic life support (BLS) training and AED usage are required for all nursing and medical workers.

What are the basics of first aid?

Airway, breathing, and CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) are the ABCs of first aid

Does a nurse have a legal obligation to provide first aid?

In an emergency, there is no legal requirement to volunteer. When a practitioner assumes some responsibility for the patient's care, the legal obligation to care frequently develops.

What is the importance of first aid?

This provides you with the ability to avoid the problem from worsening. If the patient does not obtain first aid care as soon as possible, the situation may deteriorate. You can stabilize the patient until emergency medical help arrives if you can offer first aid.

What is compulsory nursing training?

Compulsory training is a type of training that is required by an organisation in order to perform services in a safe and effective manner. This form of training is intended to decrease organizational risks and ensure compliance with local, state, and federal policies and regulations.

What is the difference between compulsory and legal training?

When a legislative body orders that body offer training in conformity with the law, it is referred to as legal training. Business-specific training that the employer deems required or vital for a given position is referred to as mandatory training.

What are the two purposes of first aid?

The purpose of first aid is to save lives, prevent injury, and help rehabilitation.

What are the 3 main objectives of first aid?

The three P's summary, in particular, promotes health, prevents additional injuries, and promotes rehabilitation.

What is the 4C First Aid?

First Aid 4C" helps providers focus on the steps they need to take to safely manage an emergency: check, call, take care and complete.

What are the ABCs of CPR?

CPR methods may be stated as ABC of CPR, with A referring to the airway, B to breathing, and C to circulation.

What is CPR now called?

CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is a life-saving method that may be used in a variety of situations where one's breathing or heartbeat has stopped, such as a heart attack or drowning. Beginning CPR with tight and quick chest compressions is recommended by the American Heart Association.

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