Zika baby symptoms, transmission, vaccine and prevention ~ Nursing Guru

Zika baby symptoms, transmission, vaccine and prevention

Zika baby symptoms, transmission, vaccine and prevention

  1. History of the Zika baby virus
  2. History of outbreak of Zika baby disease
  3. Zika virus and the global spread of disease
  4. Zika virus transmission
  5. Transmission Methods
  6. Signs and symptoms
  7. Complications of Zika Virus
  8. Zika baby virus and disease in the post-emergency stage
  9. Zika Baby Virus and Microcephaly
  10. Zika Baby Virus and Guillain-Barre Syndrome
  11. Prevention of mosquito transmission of Zika virus
  12. Zika baby feeding in areas of Zika virus transmission
  13. Kerala state in India on alert after Zika virus detection
  14. Key messages
  15. Frequently Asked Question 

History of the Zika baby virus

The Zika baby virus was the first evidence of human infection in Uganda and Tanzania in 1952. Later, sporadic and rare cases were reported in Africa, Asia and the Pacific with rare and mild cases. It is not known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. During 2007-2014, outbreaks of Zika disease emerged in the Pacific Islands. In 2015 a major outbreak of Zika disease emerged in Brazil and then Colombia. In March 2015 reports of rash, fever. October 2015 babies born with Microcephaly and other serious neurological complications. Guillain-barré syndrome is also a severe neurological disease. During 2015-2017 it spread rapidly throughout the Americas, the Caribbean and beyond.

Zika baby symptoms, transmission, vaccine and prevention

History of outbreak of Zika baby disease

In 2016 the Zika virus and related complications were declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). More than 80 countries and territories reported Zika virus transmission. Large, global response to detection, control and research. In 2017 announced the end of PHEIC. Transition Zika Program to Long-Term Strategy. Continue to track infection and disease, prevention and control, and research

Zika virus and the global spread of disease

The causes of the rapid spread of infection and serious illness in the US are unknown. Two strains: the African strain and the Asian strain Outbreak by the Asian strain, with new mutations. To date, microcephaly has only been associated with the Asian strain. The consequences of birth from the African strain are unknown. Animal model: African strain can cause early embryo loss. In Africa to date, Zika has been linked to microcephaly only in Cabo Verde and possibly due to the introduction of an Asian strain in Angola. Future disease surveillance and research is needed to understand Zika transmission and its clinical consequences.

Zika baby symptoms, transmission, vaccine and prevention

Zika virus transmission

Zika baby virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes mainly Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, has tropical and sub-tropical regions. Breed around the house in small puddles of water: garbage, tires, flower pots, containers. bite during the day. Also transmit dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, other viruses

Transmission Methods

  1. Primary mode of transmission: bite of an infected mosquito
  2. Transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery.
  3. Also transmitted person-to-person: sexual contact, blood transfusion, or organ transplant.

Signs and symptoms

Majority of people with Zika baby virus infection did not have symptoms.

  1. mild fever
  2. rash
  3. Conjunctivitis
  4. muscle and joint pain
  5. Ihead ache
  6. malaise
  7. Symptoms last 2-7 days

Congenital Zika Syndrome

Congenital Zika syndrome is a unique pattern of birth defects and disabilities found in fetuses and infants infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. Although many of the features seen as part of congenital Zika syndrome can be caused by other infections during pregnancy, there is often a pattern of the following features known as congenital Zika syndrome:

  1. Severe microcephaly (the skull has partially collapsed)
  2. Decreased brain tissue with a typical pattern of brain damage
  3. Damage to the backside of the eye (ie, pigment changes, scarring, )
  4. There will be limited range of motion in joints like clubfoot
  5. Too much muscle tone limits body movement immediately after birth

Complications of Zika Virus

In Asia, Americas, Pacific: Infection in pregnancy can result in microcephaly, small head circumference less than 3 percent and other anomalies. Other adverse pregnancy outcomes: miscarriage, stillbirth, infant brain calcification, other neurological problems in infants. Zika can also cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures and other serious neurological complications.

Zika baby virus and disease in the post-emergency stage

  1. Continued efforts are needed to track Zika transmission and understand the risks to pregnant women outside the US.
  2. Pregnant women should be advised to seek medical care if they develop fever, rash, gout, or other symptoms of Zika infection.
  3. Pregnant women with symptoms should be tested for Zika virus and other related infections.
  4. The reporting of cases of Zika infection and microcephaly through public health systems will strengthen efforts to monitor transmission and disease outcomes in pregnant women and infants.

Zika Baby Virus and Microcephaly

The risk of microcephaly in Africa remains unknown. In the US, the rate of microcephaly is estimated to be 3–10% of infections in the first trimester with the Asian strain. Fetal ultrasound may be useful for early detection of microcephaly during pregnancy. Babies should be screened and head circumference should always be measured at birth. Cases of microcephaly and other birth defects should be reported to public health authorities. There is no specific treatment for microcephaly. Early intervention with stimulation and play can help with child development. Counseling and support for affected families is essential.

Zika Baby Virus and Guillain-Barre Syndrome

The Zika virus can also cause Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a rare condition in which a person's immune system attacks peripheral nerves. Guillain-Barré syndrome is more common in adult males and is potentially life-threatening. Severe cases of GBS are rare, but can result in almost complete paralysis. Supportive care is important in the management of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Most people who contract GBS can make a full recovery.

Prevention of mosquito transmission of Zika virus

Eliminate breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes:

  1. Same Mosquitoes and Control Measures for Dengue, Yellow Fever and Chikungunya
  2. Remove small water containers and garbage around the house
  3. Use of Approved Household Sprays and Larvicides

Prevent Aedes Mosquito Bites:

  1. Prevent mosquito bites during day and evening
  2. Personal protection: Light colored clothing and insect repellent
  3. Physical Barriers: Window Curtains, Closed Doors and Windows, and Bed Nets

Prevention of Zika Virus Sexual Transmission

  1. Men and women returning from areas where Zika virus transmission is known are advised to abstain from or practice safe sex for at least 6 months.
  2. In areas with active Zika transmission, pregnant women and their partners are advised to abstain from or practice safe sex for the duration of the pregnancy.

Zika virus diagnosis and treatment

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of recent infection made by molecular testing (PCR) or IgM testing immediately following symptoms.
  2. Precise, simple tests are not yet available.
  3. The test is often not widely available - sometimes performed in national or reference laboratories.
  4. Affected Newborns Likely Not to Have a Positive TE
  5. There is no specific treatment for Zika virus infection.
  6. Patients are advised to take rest, drink fluids and manage fever and pain from normal medications.
  7. There is no known treatment available to prevent birth defects.

Zika virus vaccine (ZIKV)

At present there is no vaccines available on the market against ZIKV. UNICEF is working closely with WHO and PAHO to promote R&D to address deficiencies in vaccines and diagnostic equipment.

Zika baby feeding in areas of Zika virus transmission

According to WHO recommendations Zika baby born to mothers with suspected, probable or confirmed Zika virus infection, or who have lived in or traveled to areas of Zika virus transmission, should be fed according to general infant feeding guidelines. They should begin breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfed for six months and continue breastfeeding until two years of age or older, with timely introduction of adequate, safe and appropriately fed complementary foods Should give.

Kerala state in India on alert after Zika virus detection

A pregnant woman was found infected with the mosquito-borne disease, while another 13 suspected cases are being investigated. Officials from the state of Kerala, in southern India, issued a statewide alert after a case of the Zika virus was confirmed, officials said. 

The Kerala minister said samples from 13 suspected cases were sent to a laboratory in Pune for further testing. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable and can pass the infection on to their newborns, which can lead to life-altering conditions such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare autoimmune disease. It can also cause birth defects like microcephaly, in which babies are born with small heads due to abnormalities in brain development. 

There are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to prevent or cure. The World Health Organization declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in 2016. India also saw outbreaks of Zika in 2017 and 2018, with hundreds of cases reported in the western states of Gujarat and Rajasthan, as well as in the central state of Madhya Pradesh. The new infection is the first in Kerala.

Key messages

  1. Zika virus causes mild illness lasting 2-7 days and majority of people with Zika virus did not shown symptoms.
  2. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause miscarriage or put the baby at risk of microcephaly and other congenital anomalies.
  3. Zika Virus May Trigger Serious Neurological Complication
  4. Guillain-Barré syndrome in older children and adults.
  5. The best way to protect against the virus is to prevent mosquito bites by wearing protective clothing, using insect repellent, using drains for breeding grounds and using physical barriers including window screens and mosquito nets.
  6. Zika virus can also be transmitted sexually, and safe sex or abstinence is recommended for individuals who have been exposed to the virus.
  7. Zika virus can be spread through blood transfusion and contact with blood.
  8. Precautions should be taken to prevent blood borne transmission.
  9. There are significant psychosocial concerns about Zika virus and its associated complications, especially in pregnant women.
  10. Stigma and discrimination are two common barriers affecting people with disabilities.
  11. International Human Rights Instruments promote the rights and dignity of children and adults with disabilities.
  12. Children with psychosocial disabilities have the right to remain and contribute to their communities and to receive services equal to those provided to other members of the community.

 Frequently Asked Question 

How do people get Zika virus?

Zika baby virus is mainly transmitted to people through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, which can also spread chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever. Zika virus can also be transmitted through sex and has been found in semen, blood, urine, amniotic fluid, saliva, and body fluids found in the brain and spinal cord. Zika virus can pose a threat to blood safety. People who have donated blood are encouraged to report to a blood transfusion service if they later develop symptoms of Zika virus infection or if they have recently been diagnosed with Zika virus infection within 14 days of donating blood.

What are the symptoms of Zika virus disease?

Zika baby virus usually causes mild illness. Symptoms typically include a mild fever or rash, which appears a few days after a person has been bitten by an infected mosquito. Although many will not develop any symptoms, others may also suffer from conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, and feel tired. Symptoms are mostly last for 2 to 7 days. There is no known difference between the symptoms of infected pregnant and non-pregnant women.

How is Zika virus disease diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on the person's symptoms and recent history (such as mosquito bites or travel to an area where Zika virus is found). Laboratory tests can confirm the presence of Zika virus in the blood. However, this diagnosis may not be reliable because the virus can cross-react with other viruses such as dengue, West Nile and yellow fever. Developing a rapid and reliable diagnostic test is a high priority in the care space for research related to Zika.

How is Zika virus disease treated?

Symptoms of baby Zika virus disease can be treated with medicines for general pain and fever, rest and plenty of water. If symptoms get worse, people should seek medical help.

Why do we need a Zika virus country classification scheme?

Public health agencies such as the WHO rank countries to characterize the level of transmission of Zika virus to infants and the likelihood of its spread at any given time. This information enables countries to prepare for and respond to threats and to formulate public health recommendations for residents and travellers.

What are the categories in the Zika Virus Country Classification Scheme?

Category 1: Areas with newly introduced Zika virus since 2015 or areas where the virus has been reintroduced, with ongoing transmission. Category 2: Areas in which Zika virus has spread before 2015 or with transmission, but which do not meet the criteria for Regions 1 or 3. Category 3: Area with interrupted transmission but with potential for future transmission. Category 4: Area with established Aedes aegypti mosquitoes but no known documentation of past or present transmission.


Last reviewed: 10 July 2021
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