Chikungunya fever a fatal viral disease and its prevention ~ Nursing Guru

Chikungunya fever a fatal viral disease and its prevention

Chikungunya fever a fatal viral disease and its prevention 

Chikungunya fever is a debilitating but not fatal viral disease. It is spread by the bite of the infected female Aedes aegypti mosquito. Clean water collection is the place of Aedes mosquito breeding. Chikungunya is an emerging vector-borne disease, prone to epidemics, of considerable importance in the WHO South-East Asia Region. Massive outbreaks of Chikungunya fever have occurred in recent years in India and the island countries of the Indian Ocean. Environmental factors and community behavior play an important role in the epidemic and the spread of Chikungunya.

Chikungunya fever a fatal viral disease and its management

Table of content
Important facts about chikungunya fever
  1. Chikungunya is caused by the  (CHIKV) Chikungunya virus. it is a viral disease which is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to humans. 
  2. CHIKV infection can cause fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle aches, joint pain, headaches, nausea, fatigue and hives.
  3. Joint pain associated with chikungunya is often debilitating, and varies in duration.
  4. There is at present no vaccine or specific drug against the virus. Treatment focused on relieving the symptoms of the disease.
  5. The disease is most prevalent in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. However, a major outbreak in 2015 affected many countries in the Americas, and sporadic outbreaks appear elsewhere.
  6. The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue and Zika and are misdiagnosed in areas where they are common.
  7. Severe cases and deaths from chikungunya are very rare and almost always related to other health problems.
  8. Because of the challenges in accurate diagnosis of chikungunya, the number of cases worldwide is not estimated on an annual basis.
  9. The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation is an important risk factor for chikungunya.

Cause of chikungunya fever

Chikungunya is caused by the Chikungunya virus, which is classified in the family of Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus.

How chikungunya fever spread

Chikungunya is spread by the bite of an Aedes mosquito, mainly Aedes aegypti. Humans are believed to be the primary source, or reservoir, of the Chikungunya virus for mosquitoes. As a result, the mosquito usually spreads the disease by biting an infected person and then biting someone else. An infected person cannot spread the infection directly to other people (it is not a contagious disease). The Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite during the day.

Symptom of chikungunya fever

  1. The time between the bite of a mosquito carrying the Chikungunya virus and the onset of symptoms varies from 1 to 12 days.
  2. It is generally characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills accompanied by joint pain.
  3. Headache, nausea, vomiting
  4. Muscle pain
  5. Fatigue and nausea
  6. Headache
  7. Eruption
  8. Joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually ends in a few days or weeks.

Diagnosis of chikungunya fever

 Blood tests (ELISA)

Management of chikungunya fever

  1. There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya.
  2. Only supportive therapy is given to relieve symptoms
  3. The administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs helps relieve pain.
  4. Antiviral drugs like acyclovir are also given (but only in complicated cases prescribed by the doctor).
  5. The abundance of fluids helps to stay hydrated.
  6. Infected people should be isolated from mosquitoes as much as possible to avoid spreading the infection to other people.

Prevention of chikungunya fever

  1. There is no vaccine against the Chikungunya virus or drugs available to cure the infection. Prevention of mosquito bites is key. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites is another key preventive measure. Prevention is similar to that of other viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as dengue:
  2. Use insect repellents on skin and clothing
  3. Use insect repellents containing DEET, Picaridin and lemon eucalyptus oil on exposed skin. Wear long sleeves and pants (ideally treat clothing with Permethrin or another repellent).
  4. Keep safe screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.
  5. In addition, a person with Chikungunya fever should limit their exposure to mosquito bites to avoid further spreading the infection. The person should use repellents when exposed to mosquito bites outdoors or stay indoors in areas with mosquito nets or under a mosquito net.
  6. By eliminating all potential places of vector reproduction near domestic or peri-domestic areas.
  7. Do not allow storage of water for more than a week. This could be done by emptying and drying the water tanks once a week.
  8. Filter the stored water using a clean cloth once a week to remove mosquito larvae from the water and the water can be reused. The sieved fabric should be dried in the sun to kill the immature stages of mosquitoes.
  9. When the water cannot be extracted but used for live stock or other purposes, temephos (Larvaicide) can be used once a week at a dose of 1 ppm (parts per million).
  10. Pyrethrum extract (0.1% ready-to-use emulsion) can be sprayed into rooms (not outside) to kill adult mosquitoes hiding in the house.
  11. Introduce of larvivorous fish, namely Gambia and Guppy in water tanks and other sources of water.

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